Coordination of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment, 6.3.1 Coincident Horizontal and Vertical Curves, 7.2 Horizontal Alignment Design Procedure, 7.6.2 Minimum Horizontal Curve Lengths and Deflection Angles Not Requiring Curves, 7.7.6 Length of Superelevation Development, 7.7.9 Design Superelevation Development Lengths, 7.7.10 Positioning of Superelevation Runoff without Transitions, 7.7.11 Positioning of Superelevation Runoff with Transitions, 7.7.12 Superelevation Development on Shoulders, 7.7.13 Development of Superelevation to Avoid Drainage Problems, 7.9 Pavement Widening on Horizontal Curves, 7.10 Curvilinear Alignment Design in Flat Terrain, 7.10.2 Advantages of Curvilinear Alignment, 8.2.6 Other Vertical Clearance Considerations, 8.6.6 Reverse/Compound/Broken Back Vertical Curves, 8.6.8 Maximum Grade Change without a Vertical Curve, Appendix A Extended Design Domain (EDD) For Geometric Road Design, Appendix A 2 EDD Cross-section Widths for Two-lane, Two-way Rural Roads, Appendix A 2.2 Rural Two-lane Two-way Road Widths, Appendix A 3 EDD for Stopping Sight Distance, Appendix A 3.1 Application of EDD for Stopping Sight Distance, Appendix A 3.3 Vertical Height Parameters, Appendix A 3.6 EDD Stopping Sight Distance for Cars, Appendix A 3.7 Shoulder/Traversable Widths and Manoeuvre Times, Appendix A 3.8 EDD Crest Vertical Curve Size, Appendix A 3.9 Sight Distance Requirements on Horizontal Curves where there is no Line of Sight over Barriers/Structures, Appendix A 4 EDD for Horizontal Curves with Adverse Superelevation, Appendix B Emergency Aircraft Runway Strips, Appendix B 1 General Standards and Applications, Appendix D Example Calculation of the Operating Speed Model, Appendix D 1 Using the Operating Speed Model, Appendix D 1.2 Determination of Desired Speed, Appendix D 1.3 Length of Road to be Analysed, Appendix D 1.4 Identification of Sections, Appendix D 1.5 Estimating Actual Operating Speeds on a Section of Road, Appendix D 2 Additional Considerations when Using the Operating Speed Model, Appendix D 2.3 Increase in Speed on a Chain of ‘Short’ Elements, Appendix D 2.6 Effect of Pavement Condition, Appendix E Narrow Median Treatments with Wire Rope Safety Barrier (WRSB), Appendix E 2 Wire Rope Safety Barrier – Issues to Consider, Appendix F Guidance for Wide Centre Line Treatments (WCLT), Appendix F 4 Dimensions and Design of WCLT, Appendix F 6.2 Successive narrow structures, Appendix F 7 WCLT at Overtaking Lanes/Climbing Lanes, Appendix F 8 WCLT Signage and ATLM Requirements, Appendix F 9 Design Exceptions (Departures), Appendix F 10 Widening to Incorporate a WCLT, Appendix G Flow Charts and Table for Determining Stopping Sight Distance Requirements for Curves with Barriers, Appendix G 1 Car Stopping Sight Distance Requirements on Horizontal Curves with Roadside Barriers, Appendix G 2 Truck Stopping Sight Distance Requirements on Horizontal Curves with Roadside Barriers, Appendix G 3 Minimum Radii for Lateral Clearance Required on Curves with Barrier, Appendix H Theory of Movement in a Circular Path, Appendix H 2 Side Friction Force on Vehicle, Appendix H 2.3 Other Factors affecting Truck Stability, Appendix J 4 Characteristics of the Euler Spiral (Clothoid), Appendix K Vertical Curve Curvature Formulae, Table 2.1: Issues and good practice relating to motorcyclists, Table 3.1: Typical posted speed limits (km/h), Table 3.2: Typical desired speed (for roads on which vehicle speeds are largely unaffected by the horizontal alignment), Table 3.3: Typical desired speed (for rural roads on which vehicle speeds are influenced by the horizontal alignment), Table 4.2: Typical pavement crossfall on straights, Table 4.5: Single carriageway rural road widths (m), Table 4.6: Divided carriageway rural road widths, Table 4.10: Typical details of verge rounding, Table 4.12: Factors to be considered in open drain design, Table 4.13: Types of drain, functions and design considerations, Table 4.14: Clearances from line of kerb to traffic lane, Table 4.17: Clearance to cyclist envelope from adjacent truck, Table 4.18: Exclusive bicycle lane dimensions in urban areas, Table 4.19: Bicycle/car parking lane dimensions (parallel parking), Table 4.20: Bicycle/car parking lane dimensions (angle parking), Table 4.21: Wide kerbside lane dimensions, Table 4.22: Widths of bus travel lanes on new roads, Table 4.23: Width of kerbside bus lanes incorporating bicycle lanes, Table 4.24: Light rail vehicle critical dimensions for straight track, Table 4.25: Centre of road parking – minimum roadway width, Table 4.26: Minimum service road lane widths for roads with low traffic volumes, Table 4.27: Typical minimum service road carriageway widths for roads with low traffic volumes and low parking demand, Table 4.28: Examples of widths of outer separators, Table 4.30: Typical clearances to road reservation boundary, Table 5.3: Design domain for coefficient of deceleration, Table 5.4: Coefficient of deceleration for unsealed roads, Table 5.5: Stopping sight distances for cars on sealed roads, Table 5.6: Truck stopping sight distances, Table 5.7: Minimum shoulder widths and manoeuvre times for sight distances over roadside safety barriers on horizontal curves, Table 5.8: Overtaking sight distances for determining overtaking zones on MCV routes when MCV speeds are 10 km/h less than the operating speed, Table 5.9: Overtaking sight distances for determining overtaking zones on MCV routes when MCV speeds are equal to the operating speed, Table 7.1: Maximum decrease in speed value between geometric elements for low and intermediate speed rural roads, Table 7.2: Portion of superelevation runoff located prior to the circular curve, Table 7.3: Maximum radius requiring a spiral, Table 7.5: Recommended side friction factors for cars and trucks, Table 7.6: Minimum radii of horizontal curves based on superelevation and side friction at maximum values, Table 7.7: Maximum deflection angles not requiring horizontal curves and minimum horizontal curve lengths, Table 7.8: Maximum values of superelevation to be used for different road types, Table 7.9: Superelevation development length rounding curve length, Table 7.10: Maximum relative grade between edge of carriageway and axis of rotation in superelevation development, Table 7.11: Design superelevation development lengths (Le) satisfying both rate of rotation and relative grade criteria, Table 7.12: Minimum radii with adverse crossfall, Table 7.13: Curve widening per lane for current Austroads design vehicles, Table 8.1: Typical minimum vertical clearances over roadways and pedestrian/cycle paths, Table 8.2: Effect of grade on vehicle type, Table 8.4: Desirable maximum lengths of grades, Table 8.6: Length of crest vertical curves – appearance criterion when S < L, Table 8.7: Minimum size crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads (S < L), Table 8.8: Minimum size crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads to satisfy intermediate sight distance (S < L), Table 8.9: Minimum size crest vertical curve (K value) to satisfy truck stopping sight distance for sealed roads (S < L), Table 8.10: Minimum lengths of vertical curves for new construction, Table 8.11: Minimum length vertical curves for reconstruction, Table 8.12: Maximum grade change without a vertical curve, Table 9.1: Traffic volume guidelines for providing overtaking lanes, Table 9.3: Merge sight distance at end of overtaking lane for cars overtaking MCVs, Table 9.4: Volume guidelines for partial climbing lanes, Table 9.5: Grade/distance warrant (lengths (m) to reduce truck vehicle speed to 40 km/h), Table 9.6: Merge sight distance at end of climbing lane for cars overtaking MCVs, Table 9.7: Sight distance to the start of an auxiliary lane, Table 9.8: Taper lengths for diverges and merges, Table A 2: Minimum EDD widths for two-lane, two-way rural roads (m), Table A 3: Design conditions for the various EDD sight distance models, Table A 4: Vertical height parameters under EDD, Table A 5: Driver reaction time under EDD(1), Table A 6: Coefficient of deceleration on sealed roads under EDD, Table A 7: Minimum EDD stopping sight distance for the Norm-Day base case for sealed roads with level grades (m)(1), Table A 8: Grade corrections to stopping sight distance for d \= 0.61, Table A 9: Grade corrections to stopping sight distance for d \= 0.46, Table A 10: Minimum EDD stopping sight distance for the Truck-Day base case for sealed roads with level grades (m)(1), Table A 11: Grade corrections to stopping sight distance for d \= 0.29, Table A 12: Minimum shoulder/traversable widths and manoeuvre times under EDD SSD, Table A 13: Minimum EDD crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads for the Norm-Day base case using an object height of 0.2 m (S < L), Table A 14: Minimum EDD crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads for the Norm-Day Base Case using an object height of 0.4 m (S < L), Table A 15: Minimum EDD crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads for the Norm-Day base case using an object height of 0.8 m (S < L), Table A 16: Minimum EDD crest vertical curve (K value) for sealed roads for the Norm-Day base case using an object height of 1.25 m (S < L), Table A 17: Minimum EDD crest curve (K value) for sealed roads for the Truck-Day base case (S < L), Table E 1: Requirements and restrictions for narrow median with wire rope safety barrier, Table F 1: Normal design domain cross-section for WCLT – two lane, two way roads, Table F 2: Extended design domain (EDD) cross-section for a WCLT – two lane, two way roads, Table G 1: Minimum radii for lateral clearance required on curves with barrier, Table H 1: Theoretical minimum radii for high speed roads, Table C9 1: Design vehicle dimensions (m), Table C17 1: Sk Values for the calculation of design speed superelevation, Table C18 1: Rate of rotation criterion length of superelevation development (Lrr), Table C18 2: Relative grade criterion length of superelevation development (Lrg), Table C19 1: Austroads design vehicle wheelbases and front overhangs, Table C20 1: Typical minimum vertical clearance to high voltage transmission cables, Table C20 2: Horizontal clearance requirements to high voltage transmission cables and towers(1), Table C22 1: Traffic volume guidelines for providing overtaking lanes, Figure 1.1: Flowchart outlining the Guide to Road Design, Figure 1.2: Flow chart for alignment design, Figure 3.3: Examples of intermediate speed roads, Figure 3.5: Identification of roadways on long, steep grades, Figure 3.6: Car acceleration on straights, Figure 3.11: Determination of truck speeds on grade, 19 m semi-trailer (33 t), 12 l diesel carrying an average load (9.7 kW/t), Figure 4.1: Cross-section design flowchart, Figure 4.3: Two metre rounding across crown line, Figure 4.4: Effect of additional crown on water flow path, Figure 4.5: An example of the development of an offset crown on a divided road, Figure 4.6: Method of introducing a single crown line, Figure 4.7: An example of separate rotation of traffic lanes using two crown lines (two crown lines), Figure 4.9: Wider shoulders on the outside of curves, Figure 4.10: Minimum verge width under structures, Figure 4.13: Straight and tapered catchlines, Figure 4.14: Benches (elevation and cross-section), Figure 4.15: Examples of batters showing noise bund or mound details, Figure 4.16: Typical table drain shape and location, Figure 4.17: Typical catch drains and banks, Figure 4.18: Desirable V-drain cross-sections, Figure 4.19: Desirable table drain cross-sections, Figure 4.21: Typical median cross-sections, Figure 4.22: Example of kerbed medians on divided urban roads, Figure 4.23: Median slope treatment (road reserve 30–50 m wide), Figure 4.24: Median slope treatment (road reserves greater than 50 m wide), Figure 4.25: Typical median terminal treatments, Figure 4.29: Kerb separated bicycle path/lane (one-way pair) off-road within the road reserve, Figure 4.30: Bicycle path (two-way) off-road in the road reserve and crossing a side street, Figure 4.32: Separated bicycle lane with clearway during peak hours (Albert Street, Melbourne), Figure 4.33: Example of a cross-section of a protected bicycle lane, Figure 4.34: Contra-flow bicycle lane – layout, Figure 4.36: Low and high angle exit and entry ramps, Figure 4.37: Operation of peak period exclusive bicycle lane during and outside clearway times, Figure 4.38: An example of a bicycle/car parking lane layout (parallel parking), Figure 4.39: A bicycle/car parking lane with painted separators between cyclists, parked cars and the traffic lane, Figure 4.40: Separated bicycle lane with physical separation of parking (Swanston Street, Melbourne), Figure 4.41: An example of a bicycle/car parking lanes layout (angle parking), Figure 4.43: Example of a camera system to record illegal use of bus lanes, Figure 4.44: Example diagram showing a full-time/part-time bus lane with signage, Figure 4.45: Layouts for parallel and angle parking spaces, Figure 4.46: Minimum width for on-street parking, Figure 4.47: Conversion of a car parking space to motorcycle spaces, Figure 4.50: Example bus stop layout for roadside width > 4.0 m, Figure 4.51: Example of an indented bus bay layout, Figure 5.3: Truck stopping sight distance, Figure 5.4: Line of sight on horizontal curves, Figure 5.6: Car headlight sight distance on sag vertical curves, Figure 5.7: Headlights shine tangentially off horizontal curves, Figure 6.1: Lateral shifts on crests (poor design practice), Figure 6.2: Alignment change behind crest (poor design practice), Figure 6.3: Horizontal curve longer than vertical curve (good design practice), Figure 6.4: Intersection hidden behind a crest (poor design practice), Figure 6.5: Hidden dip (poor design practice), Figure 6.6: Shallow dip (poor design practice), Figure 6.7: Measures to correct dips in long uniform grades, Figure 6.8: Poor coordination of horizontal and vertical alignments, Figure 6.9: Roller coaster grading resulting in hidden dips, Figure 6.10: Acceptable coordination of horizontal and vertical alignments, Figure 6.11: A road well fitted to the terrain, Figure 6.12: A road that is not well fitted to the terrain, Figure 6.13: Comparison of short and long horizontal curves, Figure 6.14: Short horizontal curves in series, Figure 6.15: Short sag curve appears kinked, Figure 6.16: Contours showing occurrence of a flat area of pavement, Figure 7.1: Identification of roadways on long, steep grades, Figure 7.3: Reverse curves with plan transitions and a short separating tangent, Figure 7.4: Reverse curves with a long separating tangent, Figure 7.5: Reverse curves without a separating tangent – (compound or contiguous reverse curves), Figure 7.7: Rural roads: relationship between speed, radius and superelevation (V ≥ 80 km/h) and urban roads: relationship between speed, radius and superelevation (V ≥ 90 km/h), Figure 7.8: Rural roads: relationship between speed, radius and superelevation (V < 80 km/h), Figure 7.9: Urban roads: relationship between speed, radius and superelevation (V < 90 km/h), Figure 7.10: Typical superelevation development profile on two lane roads (tangent to transition curve to circular curve), Figure 7.11: Typical superelevation development profile (tangent to circular curve), Figure 7.12: Tangent to circle with unsealed shoulders, Figure 7.13: Reverse curves with unsealed shoulders, Figure 7.14: Crest vertical curve on flat grades, Figure 7.15: Crest vertical curve on steeper grades, Figure 7.16: Rising or falling grade with crest vertical curve, Figure 7.17: Sag vertical curve on flat grades, Figure 7.18: Sag vertical curve on steeper grades, Figure 7.19: Rising or falling grade with sag vertical curve, Figure 7.20: Rising or falling flat grade, Figure 7.21: Rising or falling steep grade, Figure 8.1: Less clearance for long vehicles, Figure 8.2: Critical vertical clearance points, Figure 8.3: Extent of clearance requirement under pedestrian overpasses, Figure 8.4: Driveway gradient profile beam, Figure 8.5: Typical grading point on two-lane – two-way roads, Figure 8.6: Typical grading points on urban freeways, Figure 8.7: Typical grading points on rural freeways, Figure 9.1: Example 1 of layouts of overtaking lanes, Figure 9.2: Example 2 of layouts of overtaking lanes, Figure 9.3: Example overtaking lane configurations, Figure 9.4: Typical start and termination of overtaking lanes, Figure 9.5: Details of painted island for right side widening, Figure 9.7: Effect of overtaking lanes on warrants – warrants on a section with 10% overtaking lanes, Figure 9.8: Effect of overtaking lanes on warrants – warrants on a section with 20% overtaking lanes, Figure 9.9: Determination of truck speeds on grade, 19 m semi-trailer (42.5 t) 12 l diesel carrying a maximum load (7.5 kW/t), Figure 9.10: Determination of truck speeds on grade, B-double (62.4 t), 12 l diesel carrying a maximum load (5.4 kW/t), Figure 9.11: Determination of truck speeds on grade, Type 1 road train (89.8 t), 12 l diesel carrying a maximum load (3.8 kW/t), Figure 9.12: Determination of truck speeds on grade, Type 2 road train (140 t), 16.4 l diesel carrying a maximum load (3.1 kW/t), Figure 9.13: Examples of the development of slow vehicle turnouts, Figure A 1: Layout of the shoulder/traversable area under EDD SSD, Figure B 1: Emergency airstrip dimensions – day operations, Figure B 2: Emergency airstrip dimensions – night operations, Figure D 2: Identification of Road Sections, Figure D 3: Potential section operating speeds, Figure D 5: Speed Prediction at point E and F, Figure D 7: Predicted Operating Speeds along the Road, Figure E 1: Narrow median with flexible barrier (i.e. Crime Prevention and Urban Design Resource Manual, PALM Design objectives Design – Part:... 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